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Re-Evaluation and Recommendations for Redesign of the World Trade Center : Final Report
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|Title: ||Re-Evaluation and Recommendations for Redesign of the World Trade Center : Final Report|
|Authors: ||Alqallaf, Salem|
|Keywords: ||September 11 Terrorist Attacks, 2001;World Trade Center (New York, N.Y.) -- Design and construction;Building, Fireproof;Office buildings -- Design and construction|
|Issue Date: ||22-May-2003|
|Abstract: ||After the collapse of the World Trade Center, Towers 1 and 2, several questions were raised about the fire protection, egress and emergency evacuation systems. Full engineering services were provided to analyze the design of these systems to investigate what improvements can be made to keep the buildings standing longer, which could have saved more lives.
Towers 1 and 2 each has a building footprint of an acre, stood 110 stories tall, housed 50,000 employees and an additional 26,000 visitors daily. The building layout contains a centralized core, which contains the elevators and stairs. The core was surrounded by open office space extending out to the perimeter columns.
The towers did not collapse because of the impact of the plane; they collapsed as a result of fires fueled by jet fuel burning at temperatures averaging 2000 degrees Fahrenheit. The fires destroyed parts of the fire protection system, blocked parts of the stair towers, and caused structural members to deflect and finally collapse.
The new fire protection system utilizes foam and/or water that can extinguish fires that burn at extremely high temperatures. The egress system was brought up to Building Code by adding additional stair towers and increasing their size. The emergency evacuation system incorporates parachutes, and implements an improved evacuation plan.|
|Appears in Collections:||Senior Design Projects (COE)|
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